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Patrick, Warren A. (ed.) / Show world
(April 4, 1908)

Kleine, George
Kleine disputes validity of the Edison patents,   p. 11

Page 11

Deprecates Attempt Made to Question Quality and Volume of
Product of Independent Film Manutacturers-Quotes
Attorney John R. Nolan, Who Holds Edison
Patents are Invalid.
l'sreident of the Kleine Optictai Co1 Cicigo   1ni  aiNes  Li es  e
Na esint issue Ot a 5theatirical piaptr an tuill hitun I~iiiit 00 Otis itO-e atts-rttsellt
usidutilled tilim  maln~ufacturer, said to ill thi  ~.-it-e isse f loESO  WlOR-L. Satls-
oeli-a  unde1 thi Edison stitditit te  tilt s l   t  en- solject   li be se11  at
alsked 1"ta the Edisoit cataign seas cosn  001  10ica0 othoce  Se hate a fuli stock
Iltelcued 10 Clil cago tnstoad of ew  Yotk, 01 sOliOc its Cicago, scile titt balantt is
is quoted as follows:                     in transit, or alou   to be shipped froi
Sinl tle decision in the United States  Europe. They will be released from d-ay to
Court ,tablishing the Edison eanera pat- day in such quantities as will not distuirb
ent as against all the manufacturers except market  conditions  for  Independent  ex-
the Bieraph company was handed dotvn, changes, giving a continuous supply, rather
there has been only One casI brought against than an enormous output sithin a limited
I itfriiint  mihel and carried th ot, tierey obpting a conecstioe tand
'Tlit N~a  agaist tine Selig PlistoPe  assotltng ass usi-isuisl  at any itse tite,
Ct iini il  Ciicags.  'Ill  cicisili  ii  tills
os   es renderld in the, Uitd States            Holds Patents Invalid.
I ircuit CoUt Only tWO Isniths ago, an  a  Certaits ittet-ests Dot getially known In
inraor of tle Edison company. The eaSe    the motion picture trade, wishing to obtain
sptt   tlhoroughly threshed out at tha t an opinion covering the validity of the Etdi-
tile.                                 '- son patents on films, empoweored their pt-
'th Edison attorneys believe that Cts ent attorney, John R. Nolan, No. 111 Broad-
cout, hating upheld the Edison camera    way, New York, to make a thorough and
]latent it a formler action, will be more  impartial investigation of the merits of the
I    liel to Support the film  patent of the  claim. In a written opinion which is coim-
lsame concertnV, hil is so closely related to  preiensive and uniased. he decides clearly
ti- ctioria Patent. It wsas fot this Ieso  and unqualifiedly against the validity of the
ibid 010 case Was brought in" the Chicago Edison patents.
ot w icih11 heird thle Selig-Edilso  case.  Ses-eral points are brought out by Mr. No-
Outline of Lihigation.           lass which have not been previously emipha-
iThe     igis a, brief   utline of tie  sized, and which will prove interesting to
I    -veryone concerned                                    with   motion   picture
lt  oIn I Id too, suit u-as Iid Pg  films. I quote from his opinion:
li lonic1 Manlactu0ring tomittitny 0int   "In compliance with Your requeSt for my
lt-Sojl MIo                    itllialig  en tle  leaiort opinion as to the scope and validity of re-
Unubelig paItscope  c  on  Lte calil- issuo patent No. 12,192, dated Jan. 12, 1904,
rtiouerolUleot beto          he partieS  to Thomas A.Edison. for Kitietocotic Film,
hise St ii'lout ei  s   rest It o  - I  ave to advise you as follows:
uotlsa L"tit 5titt at  ,  bt 5cal 1 .ne  S   hath exassied tse said the sa  fIt
orA  01 tit stilt bgilst  lue  nr10in otmst ciatesat o hd ogi atetAo
tLslpon at  te  1it ca ti, c stu e Kohelat-  -alit; the hirst re-issue No ti sa   datet
Altr filse htcIs. l ol ihW hourt               et hepptrieit 30,  the2, otd she tcision o f the oUt S
III   wase teuc i lol tase t  k prOsecU 0   Citeot Coort of Appeals for the Second Cir-
lo iSuit   a    nil't S njuntoios Llt  tIP lt s Chit, isrnolindg t he original Pitent.
Onio1, alie wlek- altrtherill- pAs a restlt of           y investigatito, I ain of
jleio a, o  it out l i,   Ipescu lelpI-  opiioii that cai  1  of  theis s-issue is sot
Eicing  itt                            for the     reasoe, amongst others.  lat the
iU 0Lil3 llta si115tflue Sfaralssi     subject hereof is substantially thu sante at
siulit W, 0 , teLt .an. eS ais II  VLate, 400 ew  th  od  bere     rmasne
if thicltie I    ee erai  Qu  to 11111111   thotof clail 5 ofthe origilt paent hich
tEdis Mantctrng  cas                   oecared invalid by the       ort of All-
uon Edions   a   sn, d    e   w     at peat for te Second Cire., i  I am  also of
5i1eilt aloei t)o m I , ju teeln Ilims  tie opinion that elanit e m of t ois re-issue is
tste Two Upl h ia iieliItoh itlont1-  1o r  issoliut fr the reasos tit the oerforatisg
,hc  ust have so       stldoltqaiti es  of te ettges ofthe bliss eei not ivotle Pal-
solist6 tilt >0I~ i-o cp                 Citpn   etabule invenstionl in a-ieee, of sthe isrior Stite
bing " i S tie coiihtLo  coittinued %Nit floutoftea.
iinterftleo  n to I bfl the a l sets  oction p sn-   Operates its suo  Esnovpel.
tit  v l tere ttistt -Seiuvtohlotd ov                     oels     of the  Cottt oh
t b  xia "S thetie nso oct10i taken againstt Appieals referrett to hut Lit 10  wrot1055  thei
this IeoIll i compan Itt   I-  litirc  ~esi, otqulOtnce 01 Eti~son stsoin   P
tiialelt  el aOl Inaun ati            t o  i Surrender ad  sl-sue of  t  oiial
Obe 0  17, te dateto the ieclee  patet ritpeas is t esutilti to his tu
oell, iol neI o Imolte Oslytiheop  Eisonit  ctluPeing the fsi  fisaind be sthject of
iaufaturitn  cot ai  o  nat, O De  I, thi ainthudconed chatimu
to  iotio on 5to t  oil nu . nci,  t  rl-  t 1 to be isotd tsat i  thise clatust
iTsoilse t o  iu      In lnotr opot    re-issue No. 12.09S  Ein thon stlusitmoutt h
ltedt             tpe1it of v, cmeSa  lattesrdeotdk the w ord 'equidistant'ifori
lute years s intevenn e  theae   ofe-iserplydefined'' phat ble  Subtit  t er ue
there, ri l       ill sui and .  30t16 7,i  ic he or   ml tofth fo r tit sale potnt 01
silttut, 640 iet; I ail Joh-------liser's sate, -150  view' the 'ast 'is observed front si sinlg~e
Ieet;il s n.  itlufto sty 1cou  to ue  poit of vie  at h ide l renror g ilervli
O  Oises Iteresttg Question.      of'the,' a d that ie i    lseytet at fIso ed Of
Ie tlcii  (reatie tt this pitographl atit  the
Ih  t t tcolui  01 a hutetst itoe nol  woits 'suomicieft t lit nitisber to i nresent ale
Lolisil iuittilcturi   toiwichadoe  is   based  ls:vetents of tte objett tbroughit tlt ex-
upon1 Euissus'i legal Strenthi tout a It05.1 tentledjpertodi of ote.
11uig  ic 0l to ti es  such acllent ilus  ''It cas evidently i attempt to expood
s tilts hIoe lirphaes and eotet  ul S, the c  eilons P  elilalist   the osord 'fslis-
s io tinstr hatbeen sold it  theEitlit, taill.' Thser o crhats ore teclit do-
ihut uiltefote, stifOl  the Lstrng l It o  sithee to incote stpbose  novelu fetuCs
tll 5 rib ly oter dio  icensoeptcd   tgiec  thot ovettoh e the roitic 11  of th e
Shire di   s s0 Inn cer a  tilt wei  P0ut  'ort  to  the onexral cloisi
isite co11pa113  5505, optiattiu'  tuber fle
1isos ticess d atring tei atoal    itr Ediston Surrenders Be-cotes
fntter Is, t     eo7, the  dsate of   oi  nscte,  Sfer reviesing tile eaussor it I natinu
slit aut Fobl. men 1100 j               tuoes  fue Biograps cossainN  iu I'ttison,
Ibets Iore etr. Selig ad tile Selli  ELquivln NoLa continues:
scops shuttahit slot Isishested Pg tue Pdieont  "Plendintg this sitl, Ottt before tuse he
Malizn cetain cother for ait iips leh   s   on th te word 'aisob sliinterif
touhs violtis e of out i drdnatio s i  e issue No. 1nt., asid sere litdl  ritent
'e tettiporaig injtnis101  uieceetst115 op- reissue No. 12,191, iii the, uclihis of itiititl
tlitd Is a particular lype, of eamuelae upon  hatter he inseroed the seordoequitlista'I t.
tilint soit stat f roufht  Is.   Durtird   Tise simpe question ic:  to teo lias of
the  edrs nlerenseing  aetteae the dote ot  relsie difei  atentable subc foa te
i    ae origial sulit a nd Oct. Is, olum, dud the oe the claims of the original subtitt d
ilepn det spe copaony  otiTe to use  m   op lon they do n o, for ths follossing
tis Site of canuera? lessons:
Only OneAswer to Question.           "The ternas 'uniiformt sluurjtly-dcfineul' sers
I Colthoid Ptut one atisswe- ten  qu iesto   etsarly ihncltuted Pg imipuliestlonis f ilt
sidll hut is that the Selig titscoe quio ctjodhcated clilt of tile triginah ptotest,
Da~ "us bein  osessonoyanoher CoI  and 01>a0 fle Cosurt so reg-ardect tiltii  ns,
111 Picssn t inmra wheeioe ofano ther mov  line1, fairly dediuced frost its languoae at fol-
Iii Edison piatent.                         " 'The ilt s t- t 0 nest. a11i if tle othise
If 1il1. Suth5 is to possession of such a  chiaractoristics of the produet ate noi nu
callieroJ, 0hiitit lies the nsecessity of Isis or one suese only in tle sCoite that then aihi
tcthttissn   littuse to operate under fuse sothe article mserely a stuhiCioliss if iis111
lidisesn Cunltha Pateint; or nucldir ote Phi-  orti greatersacturalcy of dtrtati, site, claimt us
sn1 tlil Iatt if ohio sireusgot of fle  itiitile of ptsctstle 150teltY.'
llle tieos, ot is etatet i11 this Paragraph  I iUiott Fliter Cot1110 Co. v. Van -us(i
oiltet  01001:,  iii  its  tclose  relatiotn  to  thle  sells.1,' %)-all  O:0.66  Is-e  Suii'itu  C outiS  ou:
ib2is511 tiltiera patenit?                uste I telli Shotts tehti-ited she rule:
It the is m putatenit rests upons te cauerat '  tii5o  aaotiltttsl'ues i
Itlt li oiu tto titlms infritnge suhichs are  Ohi o ruiuiucuat telss, whell tiey aie iott
tilde frsom osgaives producect Pg a non- noew in tse sinse oh file Piatent last , ,i
li1hiisgisig eanerat                     orticecs of tommittsie are hnlt paltiti.l as
It Allr. Sellig owtns a tsoi-infrniitg cans-  newt mnnuflcttiles siths it ap5'-an- its this
,ra osiltig other Edison liceeese owvn gixeus cast that thc ptsoitiotn of she us ssv
'lutlt-iifriiiig in-cauier,,s; and  solu  a cc ept article sitvolsed toe exercise of invtihn~ 0r
Edison liceset if that be othe fact?    discoscut heous  sihiat  s  netessars  to
Iles tlie ansoer rest in tlse necessity of eonstruct the "aps1 bus fout its itstutfac-
hiL`oifig Slioie iieits to justify and validlate  t-le oh prstdtction.
itesltesupt to restrict the number of filait
tliljeris placed tipon the market and to          Eqtutvaleat Iauigitage Iei
leiil5, certain  other  otteruitionls  wxhich  '-Respecting the seords 'as obsersed front
te(llld othiewise be conssitlereti as in re- a siie point of view iat rapidly recurring
sirthill of trade?                        hlesvaleutoftfint,'Iantvi unaobeto see -ehere-
ihOlle Eidisoit licensees are atiemsstilg to  ill they dilfereiiste its stubstance ft-som ii,t
dreiate the quality and s-ohumie of otho  lutsgtuage for sohicth- tliey- t-Cre sthSetittuteut-
I1letesclest Stupply of ints.  Thie anlsweer  naoetueh---'all talkent frot the saute potint of
vien.' it is quite clear, I think, that if
'equidistant photographs of succi-sive poi-
tions of an object in motion' ate 'all taken
Iromt the Same point of viewi,' Such positions
are 'obseIed ftroti a single oint of It iiw at
-iidly irecurring intoervals o  time.' Even
ilttu-l the language ima  b 1- som-iilhat mor
cas[ic thian that for wItich it %i Is sunstI-
tutO, it must, I think, 1 .o regardd Sub-
stantially as equivalent tIhbet `
As to the words 'and snilicient in nut-t
ler to represent the novments of the object
tiiighi in extended period     of time,   it
semts tieir that this language must fairl
in II e     i e   i- inii o"eaiiti.  ed to
isaosf'> thtat if tii  photograpsi -ptresett
S COttsttt  positions ot it objecit, ntotiotn,
0Ltsch pilootIltps en attcalted itn a con-
tiiuous sitraight-line setIueice olimited in
nulber save by the length of the tutm, tihe-
ar 'sulicient in slutiber to represent the
tote0ets   01f the objet through ats ex-
te ided iperiod of time."  Such  period  is
leessarily a variable ttuantity determined
is the nature of the subject."
Optical Theater Patent.
s. Nolan thes rfeo    to a Prenci itaten
tte'Tt1s for attl  nitCi  Tlseat-r,' aott coo-
'"This Fretnch pateint I tegardt as a cotl-
iiiete atnticipation of site, twso claimss of the
ii      t  te is   p t o tr o t
Ei`,son re-issue patent, parIticularly so in thle
liht of the Du Cos and other trior art pat-
As above indicated, clain  2 difftrs from
it1 by the inclusion otf   L floatios in
the  edges  of site  flntl, Iit. a  ll 1),  noted,
thIeI film  of thle French patent i,, providedl
,,ith terforations.  That these perforations
aL1  in the middle and not at tite    iedgs of
0110 filmr, is, fin my opinion, ininaterial in the
n    of te patent law, as it is a common
techtanical expedient to provide fl-xible car-
iits of various kinds with perforated edges
or imaginal teeth for engagement by feed
Insists Re-Issue 1aents Are Void.
nconclusoion, rio opinon, tieretoe it
lc t e i sac ipatetnt No. t1,9 is invalid:
...1)  Bcause the subject of the claim is
not paLentably different from    that of the
claits of tile original patent;
Lf Because the subject of the cioims
dil not ivolve th  exercise of invention be-
ondI what was necessary to devise the ap-
paratus of the production of the film, and
"I:   Because fte subject of the Ilaitmss Is
Iitiltaltt  Is Cy ite pttot att ptatenlts.
Itio-t11itn (I Otisl qusite cittnt so set
tile ipliiiit oOf Me ssrs. Kerr, Page & Coope-.
( thsat   cIr. Jolnte I- Noiat, agaistisat
if tlie letrIcI cotttisel for tite sipiosition.
RANGI, N. J., March 28.-Frank L.
iiYei, gineral counsel for the Edison
Mlanufacturing  comapany , upon  1 cein g
asked by a SHOW     WORLD    e-tirotesentative
it he cared to tmake any further Statement
ill reference to the moing picture situation,
"My attcntion has just been called to a
statement issued by l  Kltein and appear-
ing tis THE SH-OW    WORLD of MArIch 21.
I have nothing to retiact fioi im t  original
tharacterization of the Lathait patent as
a jokie its the business.  The Latham pat-
ilit was grantedi August 26. 102, and_ ac-
cording to the people   hoi ai now afir-
ing its validit tliit 1itse .n infringed by
eteoyone since that tt tit Why was it not
litigatedt to a final hearing as w'as done
Iith the Edison caiera patent? Obtiioul,
let-aise its original ow11rs thought So little
ofitetit tpeuide  fthat   it p    sed
Inu t e  X  e~ nO ts auta. yhn    3ct
I Iase ei  falio    iite this paten
iede pttent    , and ve  a s  t  et-ismt  s-erg
tcosiy m oat I iilt the teit  attt  Py
im it sas otliislls Coiet  its a sets
"Mie. terstis Itti ie t titite  tos otlge
ithe  I stretie tie  sond ito tHIe Latsh-
ai    tent is tet Itope titat I  oi tht b
ats    Pinst5 the tmtsi tant tt iososset
iouePh   t I  atyolit tot see atslie in it.
Fort inioE  CICAi GO  LatRas   piica-
ttohe Sna pteoing i  he iatteit ohite tie ce
cae aito itn Httedi stots, hitomas
intl a      ett  it of Atieas of the
Ditotainti itt Cumia detdedtt i       et it-
Meresrs.c thnesin and Iihnt Lhae long wa
lie isst  itoie d ts a resmt f tis cot-
Admits hlitne is (torrect, Bit-
ahe brst retu if the i  oiniSiiu  1iatet
ties stithdtiN~t  it tiitm    T vorissues
ster    , gianted it the fith is ione 1  the
touia tt tilt otier n the tilti  ait ti
S0its eer tittttiittim  a bouet t 1 tese
titt-itts satit the Ati..titioii itostope &
wiogtltam    ot atte  ss as nlyts theenty
o    ovee thte ws a slifht clerical error had
Messrs. inies &. B~eeltaid Open legant
Kl oving Piet Fne Noatise
Ttte Senate   adog isictute titel ioca1ett
asthitison and    talstet sti ts  Cdicago,
obtaned bn  I ine & riesal ic s o , of ile
int est reSerts meitet t tmisak . l otis of th-e
te a uiie tyba infIeit I. chag  of Sere $G500 n
tas  a sftins capait fof ite p, res-duen
nomiedatit oe ct tt ivelit ctalers in
ficiyo, etos  a  swilel  altt ittisllie
cralsl. The itcs noI netistaot  tase lotng
ntetI ittentiitt  tiit r aIttimph at  urticit-
Ilty  it the tcittus tinit  'fles  tirttict
ar exillitno t e fot the xhsos wi piltre
he stred and thei  ftit is u su xir Mio t
tohe tat tiemhstill ote ot a 15 ipsace
tbout Jtune 1,5~g$0se00 oaod seatI Ing
t00 peopit, and anothel aboot Set. 1, seat-
ing, t00O
the opf inion of thesa entsCrt0 1o u ot t
be osdeestooatedu its their oang adlation
ith amset inattis emaItingt ir tne-
to jtudte the siants of othe pulict
Kaltin Company Get 1'its Neg-isi's Wh'icth
Will Be Bealy Abounit Atell 17.
Ptaisk I. Mllos oi Cue ililes C'ompany-
anot itis -zta ft  oft ihtiocratteis ioetit iii
iWalsiton itit on itiiih t4 sucoicte its
olutainiing ao fiie seties of pictttris of Seete-
tots 'siTat, biotht it itis iiftices it the- i-%,a
Diipartsont aisd at Foil iteesi ii coiijtiis-
tits sswith tso Uited State> tiroots statiiiietd
at ths   pot.   'Vie greattest tilt, rtest 5505
flets i use, tpriceettitgs us the li- Set-nt-
tats if NI~or aitd Pcrs facitity toot offerett
the pictote isen to mtail(e a. sotcss of the
"he ruiiiicity horeao in charge. of Seere-
tots  ioNTft's camtpaignt for the ptectdentiai
1to1ssisatis I expeets to give cotssittoralIe pill)-
lionity to this fitlm and seiii urge its ose gon-
elaty stis it is iso conniection or arrange-
osent betsween the Kaicta Company uit the
Ttft 1luhlicity Bureau reiating to the saie
Or existstlton of the hilm antt exisibitors twill
lie sereldt its the itsulos  toot'  Mdr- Mariont
sisites io emsohasize the oiiticai imtportance
of the Taft pietures and points oot to ox-
hiitots anl opportunity to obtain a share
of the camspaigni timony by matting arrange-
been made in the first reissue patent for
tie film, which had to be corrected by again
reissuing it.  It was for this reason that
the suit on the first reissue of the tit
patlet was discontinued. The procuring of
tI second reissue necessitated delay, and
it was therefore decided to proceed iode-
piiiently witi the suit oin the camera iat-
1nt. The camera patent, having beon sus-
tiiiied by the Court of Appeals, carries
witi it a very strong presumption in favor
of the Patent ott the film. Mr Kleine ap-
pears to believe that I have doubts cots-
cining this film  patent, but inl this he is
imistaken, and the suits against hit are to
lie pretssed sith every possible vigor.  The
are always short delays in the starting of
litigations of this sort, but whe  a suit is
Oncet at issue it can be spesdily tertminatd.
Ithis is siiat I propose to do.
The Facts   manitlimllet Utai
a    atte tiong has   als o beet diitt to a
tail ipateitilnt ontiteti 'Ile Pats issued
I5y theAicl       atoscote & dtcisiono
ttio113y  11s us so obvt-soy ossfoss tsat
it hiiadii roqtties seriotts eosisterattos Tile
SCourt of Appeals itid sa in iteig to
i  Ldt onb tiat it isas nt tt    istti tor
if ste flim,'      et i   t his Slate mptthle
tit Itot se the stott 'film'i ii15 itlreet
acceptance.  Tiey meat saiil that i
tisun ss not the itsetos it he oiissal
eatis-  fii  o whici tie Itnt5  pituts
ar tate   because thot Lts haid tent r-
tleentetitig leveoe  t litle Ettea  wo
t(lait comspany. The courlt is notsittse said
tilwt wr. Edisot ui   slot teu istilos  o
ii toderi  fo-is tissetht ail  and te
pt-it itflie Isas gsasstet im ta itat0ent oit
1itat v-ery- ftilong. it stastuti aiso be noti',
tu t the   atedt oilte thim eies iisnu
lit- cileiptent Otmic  ant  the  tytisit oit
to eout of ppealis aic   thes Ite witet
raii  ieaot puil i t17 . ltils recil att
l of titr moving icture   mntu
-'Isaly, I obsesse 11101 it tisis isasisihlet
tse otatmteit is mpoe tt ithe Edisa
cotpttita  nd out  stlt-ss 'have lit-ci  cotmpteiied
to adort the   asera of sIte Lath m pateist
No . 7   The sexitnli is the isatent preious
rhferr ao    xtust iftelietr sto so  as to
sthis statemnsit ftiat tie Lothat  patestt to-
stcs to a proetig   ssactito and in no
-ai refers to a cfera."
istotle atin  iocai politico  conmitees st-i
teill inC lthe  iecture for dcatvosar pur-
This is the              Klrst eime ttt a osig pie-
toein of the candidate pis eei usred in a
,iieitica    l t-xhigs and itie noslt is bnhd
t iupeai to the pfulit. T e ths soili the
 itt, ablot Aiii at   c
Filus Business Imprtivinig.
Nes- Yon   otig pitre nsso  f 0xhers
liton  a  itria init- eet it te soar-
Liet, for nsewi 501)--ts iitring titt Pias5 sicci
or to. T  e explrnationisl the  entai  ir s
liii i btt is rieisttet  ta stock of oil
anEclts  all : iu  it i; iCss  r i  adibin.  t--
Iiii              libeulio ,"no  cnit Ito silt pitrticulasr
lile of ilm  but is getterin aWfetindg t
L-ti 1051e a it &lbetset toncerns.
1 KItlin iCiteires ein KIavor.
o   alt exterimeintte Oicales  Coa  ,
Ii ulittllist-soi-is tS e Pasgeline picture, is-
W.o', E, Franli,  eeah tops of the pie-
mIn  to i- ttcit iii iexliing the stony to
authu  root  3exera exhibitos, sreaiizintg tiae
tictii na t  iiiti-ti  ot thse lectureo, isase
11it up'tilth illan of islacing otto in ste.
intsk of all shsr atronss, so tht tis
of c-nd fr th Kalt-t lettures isas bieln
0ilu-uo lnil iI expsectatioss.  Otte oissl-
i2t  ii n,            chsodll  al e ition  of  1t,00s  for
Attend Inttrnatiotal (Ctotvettinl.
to at rteofn issue of TI-li SHtOiW SVCUTAt)
tmeints   s   satt of the internationa l o0B-
soiters of taslufaltrers of  oigpitu-s
iii Parts, Franice. Atsosg thse presentt at
sis isset-'itig stere represenstativ-es froms sts-
folioinsstg factors in tsstog-raphy: Clounsons
Titbas-Ecipee; B. W3. Paul: Woritick Trad-
ing' Co.. Ltd.: Lux: Rossi; Aquila; Thaeo-
phle Pattie; Crichs & Martin; Walitdoe
P~. aieigh  &- Roherts: Amabrosio: Nor-
dil;Italian Citis; Berlin  Kinenialograf;
ticpit-orth ;Ciaronda Pilms  Co.' :  illiamts,
El000n & Part; Kline Opticai Co.
i1lgenbecki Sigwns Alliance Contract.
IN.E.PFrankttin, generai agent of the Hag-
oueisuc-i3'olaee- Showrs, has signsed thle circus
"rcunt of the tnternationai Ailiance of Bi
Postes and B3iliers of Amserica.
April 4, 1908.

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